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Chewing gum (05.3)

Description:
Product made from natural or synthetic gum base containing flavours, sweeteners (nutritive or non-nutritive), aroma compounds, and other additives.1 Includes bubble gum and breath-freshener gum products.

This page provides information on the food additive provisions that are acceptable for use in foods conforming to the food category.

GSFA Provisions for Food Category 05.3
INS No. Food Additive or Group Max Level Notes Defined In
ASCORBYL ESTERS 500 mg/kg 05.0
950 Acesulfame potassium 5,000 mg/kg 05.3
956 Alitame 300 mg/kg 05.3
129 Allura red AC 300 mg/kg 05.3
559 Aluminium silicate 100 mg/kg 05.3
951 Aspartame 10,000 mg/kg 05.3
BENZOATES 1,500 mg/kg 05.3
901 Beeswax GMP 05.3
133 Brilliant blue FCF 300 mg/kg 05.3
320 Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) 400 mg/kg 05.3
321 Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) 400 mg/kg 05.3
CAROTENOIDS 100 mg/kg 05.3
CHLOROPHYLLS AND CHLOROPHYLLINS, COPPER COMPLEXES 700 mg/kg 05.3
CYCLAMATES 3,000 mg/kg 05.3
556 Calcium aluminium silicate 100 mg/kg 05.3
902 Candelilla wax GMP 05.3
150c Caramel III - ammonia caramel 20,000 mg/kg 05.3
150d Caramel IV - sulfite ammonia caramel 20,000 mg/kg 05.3
120 Carmines 500 mg/kg 05.3
903 Carnauba wax 1,200 mg/kg 05.3
160a(ii) beta-Carotenes, vegetable 500 mg/kg 05.3
1503 Castor oil 2,100 mg/kg 05.3
459 Cyclodextrin, beta- 20,000 mg/kg 05.3
472e Diacetyltartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol 50,000 mg/kg 05.3
127 Erythrosine 50 mg/kg 05.3
143 Fast green FCF 300 mg/kg 05.3
163(ii) Grape skin extract 500 mg/kg 05.3
314 Guaiac resin 1,500 mg/kg 05.3
HYDROXYBENZOATES, PARA- 1,500 mg/kg 05.3
IRON OXIDES 10,000 mg/kg 05.3
132 Indigotine (Indigo carmine) 300 mg/kg 05.3
243 Lauric arginate ethyl ester 225 mg/kg 05.3
905c(i) Microcrystalline wax 20,000 mg/kg 05.3
905d Mineral oil, high viscosity 20,000 mg/kg 05.3
905e Mineral oil, medium viscosity 2,000 mg/kg 05.0
961 Neotame 1,000 mg/kg 05.3
PHOSPHATES 44,000 mg/kg 05.3
POLYSORBATES 5,000 mg/kg 05.3
900a Polydimethylsiloxane 100 mg/kg 05.3
1521 Polyethylene glycol 20,000 mg/kg 05.3
1201 Polyvinylpyrrolidone 10,000 mg/kg 05.3
124 Ponceau 4R (Cochineal red A) 300 mg/kg 05.3
310 Propyl gallate 1,000 mg/kg 05.3
477 Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids 20,000 mg/kg 05.3
RIBOFLAVINS 1,000 mg/kg 05.3
SACCHARINS 2,500 mg/kg 05.3
SORBATES 1,500 mg/kg 05.3
904 Shellac, bleached GMP 05.3
554 Sodium aluminosilicate 100 mg/kg 05.3
484 Stearyl citrate 15,000 mg/kg 05.3
960 Steviol glycosides 3,500 mg/kg 05.3
955 Sucralose (Trichlorogalactosucrose) 5,000 mg/kg 05.3
474 Sucroglycerides 10,000 mg/kg 05.3
110 Sunset yellow FCF 300 mg/kg 05.3
319 Tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) 400 mg/kg 05.3

Items in uppercase (e.g. PHOSPHATES) refer to food additive groups.


GSFA Table 3 Provisions

The following additives, as indicated by Table 3, may be used in this food category under the conditions of good manufacturing practice (GMP) as outlined in the Preamble of the Codex GSFA.

INS No. Food Additive or Group Acceptable in Foods Conforming to the Following Commodity Standards
967 Xylitol
CS 117-1981
415 Xanthan gum
CS 117-1981
331(iii) Trisodium citrate
CS 89-1981
CS 97-1981
CS 117-1981
CS 98-1981
CS 96-1981
332(ii) Tripotassium citrate
CS 117-1981
333(iii) Tricalcium citrate
CS 117-1981
380 Triammonium citrate
CS 117-1981
1518 Triacetin
CS 117-1981
413 Tragacanth gum
CS 117-1981
171 Titanium dioxide
CS 117-1981
957 Thaumatin
CS 117-1981
417 Tara gum
CS 117-1981
553(iii) Talc
CS 117-1981 (anticaking agents in dehydrated products only)
1405 Starches, enzyme treated
CS 117-1981
1450 Starch sodium octenyl succinate
CS 117-1981
1420 Starch acetate
CS 117-1981
420(ii) Sorbitol syrup
CS 117-1981
420(i) Sorbitol
CS 117-1981
514(i) Sodium sulfate
CS 117-1981
500(iii) Sodium sesquicarbonate
CS 117-1981 (anticaking agents in dehydrated products only)
281 Sodium propionate
CS 117-1981
325 Sodium lactate
CS 117-1981
524 Sodium hydroxide
CS 117-1981
514(ii) Sodium hydrogen sulfate
CS 117-1981
500(ii) Sodium hydrogen carbonate
CS 117-1981 (anticaking agents in dehydrated products only)
350(i) Sodium hydrogen DL-malate
CS 117-1981
576 Sodium gluconate
CS 117-1981
365 Sodium fumarates
CS 117-1981
316 Sodium erythorbate (Sodium isoascorbate)
CS 89-1981
CS 97-1981
CS 117-1981
CS 88-1981
CS 98-1981
CS 96-1981
331(i) Sodium dihydrogen citrate
CS 89-1981
CS 97-1981
CS 117-1981
CS 98-1981
CS 96-1981
469 Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, enzymatically hydrolysed (Cellulose gum, enzymatically hydrolyzed)
CS 117-1981
466 Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Cellulose gum)
CS 117-1981
500(i) Sodium carbonate
CS 117-1981 (anticaking agents in dehydrated products only)
301 Sodium ascorbate
CS 89-1981
CS 97-1981
CS 117-1981
CS 88-1981
CS 98-1981
CS 96-1981
401 Sodium alginate
CS 97-1981
CS 117-1981
CS 96-1981
262(i) Sodium acetate
CS 117-1981
350(ii) Sodium DL-malate
CS 117-1981
551 Silicon dioxide, amorphous
CS 117-1981 (anticaking agents in dehydrated products only)
470(ii) Salts of oleic acid with calcium, potassium and sodium
CS 117-1981 (anticaking agents in dehydrated products only)
470(i) Salts of myristic, palmitic and stearic acids with ammonia, calcium, potassium and sodium
CS 117-1981 (anticaking agents in dehydrated products only)
1204 Pullulan
CS 117-1981
1101(i) Protease
CS 117-1981
280 Propionic acid
CS 117-1981
407a Processed eucheuma seaweed (PES)
CS 117-1981
460(ii) Powdered cellulose
CS 117-1981 (anticaking agents in dehydrated products only)
515(i) Potassium sulfate
CS 117-1981
283 Potassium propionate
CS 117-1981
326 Potassium lactate
CS 117-1981
525 Potassium hydroxide
CS 117-1981
515(ii) Potassium hydrogen sulfate
CS 117-1981
501(ii) Potassium hydrogen carbonate
CS 117-1981
577 Potassium gluconate
CS 117-1981
332(i) Potassium dihydrogen citrate
CS 117-1981
508 Potassium chloride
CS 89-1981
CS 97-1981
CS 117-1981
CS 88-1981
CS 98-1981
CS 96-1981
501(i) Potassium carbonate
CS 117-1981
402 Potassium alginate
CS 97-1981
CS 117-1981
CS 96-1981
261(i) Potassium acetate
CS 117-1981
632 Potassium 5’-inosinate
CS 117-1981
1202 Polyvinylpyrrolidone, insoluble
CS 117-1981
964 Polyglycitol syrup
CS 117-1981
1200 Polydextroses
CS 117-1981
1413 Phosphated distarch phosphate
CS 117-1981
440 Pectins
CS 117-1981
1101(ii) Papain
CS 117-1981
1404 Oxidized starch
CS 117-1981
942 Nitrous oxide
CS 117-1981
941 Nitrogen
CS 117-1981
1410 Monostarch phosphate
CS 117-1981
621 Monosodium L-glutamate
CS 89-1981
CS 97-1981
CS 117-1981
CS 98-1981
CS 96-1981
622 Monopotassium L-glutamate
CS 117-1981
624 Monoammonium L-glutamate
CS 117-1981
471 Mono- and di-glycerides of fatty acids
CS 117-1981
460(i) Microcrystalline cellulose (Cellulose gel)
CS 117-1981 (anticaking agents in dehydrated products only)
465 Methyl ethyl cellulose
CS 117-1981
461 Methyl cellulose
CS 117-1981
421 Mannitol
CS 117-1981 (anticaking agents in dehydrated products only)
965(ii) Maltitol syrup
CS 117-1981
965(i) Maltitol
CS 117-1981
296 Malic acid, DL-
CS 117-1981
518 Magnesium sulfate
CS 117-1981
553(i) Magnesium silicate, synthetic
CS 117-1981 (anticaking agents in dehydrated products only)
530 Magnesium oxide
CS 117-1981 (anticaking agents in dehydrated products only)
329 Magnesium lactate, DL-
CS 117-1981
504(ii) Magnesium hydroxide carbonate
CS 117-1981 (anticaking agents in dehydrated products only)
528 Magnesium hydroxide
CS 117-1981
580 Magnesium gluconate
CS 117-1981
625 Magnesium di-L-glutamate
CS 117-1981
511 Magnesium chloride
CS 117-1981
504(i) Magnesium carbonate
CS 117-1981 (anticaking agents in dehydrated products only)
160d(ii) Lycopene, tomato
CS 117-1981
160d(i) Lycopene, synthetic
CS 117-1981
160d(iii) Lycopene, Blakeslea trispora
CS 117-1981
1104 Lipases
CS 117-1981
322(ii) Lecithin, partially hydrolysed
322(i) Lecithin
CS 117-1981
966 Lactitol
CS 117-1981
472b Lactic and fatty acid esters of glycerol
CS 117-1981
270 Lactic acid, L-, D- and DL-
CS 117-1981
425 Konjac flour
CS 117-1981
416 Karaya gum
CS 117-1981
953 Isomalt (Hydrogenated isomaltulose)
CS 117-1981 (anticaking agents in dehydrated products only)
630 Inosinic acid, 5'-
CS 117-1981
1440 Hydroxypropyl starch
CS 117-1981
464 Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose
CS 117-1981
1442 Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate
CS 117-1981 (anticaking agents in dehydrated products only)
463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose
CS 117-1981
507 Hydrochloric acid
CS 117-1981
414 Gum arabic (Acacia gum)
CS 117-1981
412 Guar gum
CS 117-1981
626 Guanylic acid, 5'-
CS 117-1981
422 Glycerol
CS 117-1981
620 Glutamic acid, L(+)-
CS 117-1981
1102 Glucose oxidase
CS 117-1981
575 Glucono delta-lactone
CS 89-1981
CS 117-1981
CS 98-1981
418 Gellan gum
CS 117-1981
297 Fumaric acid
CS 117-1981
467 Ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose
CS 117-1981
462 Ethyl cellulose
CS 117-1981
968 Erythritol
CS 117-1981
315 Erythorbic Acid (Isoascorbic acid)
CS 89-1981
CS 97-1981
CS 117-1981
CS 88-1981
CS 98-1981
CS 96-1981
1412 Distarch phosphate
CS 117-1981
635 Disodium 5'-ribonucleotides
CS 117-1981
631 Disodium 5'-inosinate
CS 89-1981
CS 97-1981
CS 117-1981
CS 98-1981
CS 96-1981
627 Disodium 5'-guanylate
CS 89-1981
CS 97-1981
CS 117-1981
CS 98-1981
CS 96-1981
628 Dipotassium 5'-guanylate
CS 117-1981
1400 Dextrins, roasted starch
CS 117-1981
1504(ii) Cyclotetraglucose syrup
1504(i) Cyclotetraglucose
458 Cyclodextrin, gamma-
CS 117-1981
457 Cyclodextrin, alpha-
CS 117-1981
424 Curdlan
CS 117-1981
468 Cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Cross-linked-cellulose gum)
CS 117-1981
472c Citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol
CS 117-1981
330 Citric acid
CS 117-1981
140 Chlorophylls
CS 117-1981
427 Cassia gum
CS 117-1981
407 Carrageenan
CS 97-1981
CS 117-1981
CS 96-1981
410 Carob bean gum
CS 117-1981
290 Carbon dioxide
CS 117-1981
1100(vi) Carbohydrase from Bacillus licheniformis
150a Caramel I – plain caramel
CS 117-1981
516 Calcium sulfate
CS 117-1981
552 Calcium silicate
CS 117-1981 (anticaking agents in dehydrated products only)
282 Calcium propionate
CS 117-1981
529 Calcium oxide
CS 117-1981
352(ii) Calcium malate, DL-
CS 117-1981
327 Calcium lactate
CS 117-1981
526 Calcium hydroxide
CS 117-1981
578 Calcium gluconate
CS 117-1981
623 Calcium di-L-glutamate
CS 117-1981
509 Calcium chloride
CS 117-1981
170(i) Calcium carbonate
CS 117-1981 (anticaking agents in dehydrated products only)
302 Calcium ascorbate
CS 117-1981
404 Calcium alginate
CS 117-1981
263 Calcium acetate
CS 117-1981
634 Calcium 5'-ribonucleotides
CS 117-1981
633 Calcium 5'-inosinate
CS 117-1981
629 Calcium 5'-guanylate
CS 117-1981
1101(iii) Bromelain
CS 117-1981
1403 Bleached starch
CS 117-1981
162 Beet red
CS 117-1981
300 Ascorbic acid, L-
CS 89-1981
CS 97-1981
CS 117-1981
CS 88-1981
CS 98-1981
CS 96-1981
1100(iii) alpha-Amylase from Bacillus subtilis
1100(ii) alpha-Amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus
1100(v) alpha-Amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus expressed in Bacillus subtilis
1100(iv) alpha-Amylase from Bacillus megaterium expressed in Bacillus subtilis
1100(i) alpha-Amylase from Aspergillus oryzae var.
527 Ammonium hydroxide
CS 117-1981
503(ii) Ammonium hydrogen carbonate
CS 117-1981
510 Ammonium chloride
503(i) Ammonium carbonate
CS 117-1981
403 Ammonium alginate
CS 117-1981
1402 Alkaline treated starch
CS 117-1981
400 Alginic acid
CS 117-1981
406 Agar
CS 97-1981
CS 117-1981
CS 96-1981
1401 Acid-treated starch
CS 117-1981
1451 Acetylated oxidized starch
CS 117-1981
1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate
CS 117-1981
1422 Acetylated distarch adipate
CS 117-1981
472a Acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol
CS 117-1981
260 Acetic acid, glacial
CS 117-1981

  1. Food Chemistry, H.-D. Belitz & W. Grosch, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1987, pp. 634-636.

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